Thebes

3d model and reconstruction

Thebes

The reconstruction shows the immense archaeological area of Luxor and Karnak, with its monumental walls dedicated to Amon and the very long avenue flanked by sphynxes which connected them.

On the background the Nile and canals leading to the temples and cultivated areas. Inside the walls there were also some monuments from the Roman age.

Of fundamental importance for the purposes of this reconstruction are the Description de l’Égypte tables, published in Paris between 1809 and 1829.

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Short history of

Thebes

In ancient Thebes it was called Uaset or even, briefly, niut, “the city”, hence the Biblical name of No; we ignore the reason why the Greeks named it Thebai. Among the Greeks and the Romans it had, however, also known as Diospolis Magna, “the great city of Zeus“, in which divinity was identified the Egyptian Ammon.

Initially, the tutelary deity of Thebes was Mont, later supplanted by Ammon, under whose protection the Theban Pharaohs of the Seventeenth and the beginning of the Eighteenth Dynasty drove out the Hyksos from the country, and the Theban triad, which, besides Ammon, included his wife Mut and their son of couple Khonsu.”They are in front of her (= Thebes), Valley and Delta, the sky, the earth, the afterlife … the water, the mountains, the Nun (= chaos) in its forms, the Nile. Its strength prosper everything on Geb. To her belong all things on which the sun shines”: how an ancient Egyptian anthem recited. Also in the epic poems of Homer (Iliad IX, 381-382) speaks of Thebes: “Thebes of Egypt, where the greatest treasures are stored in the houses, and the city has a hundred gates, and each leaving two hundred men with horses and with chariots … “.No archaeological complex in Egypt is comparable to that of ancient Thebes: the Middle Kingdom is the beginning of his rise, but it is during the New Kingdom that the city became the capital of Egypt and the main cult center of the god Amon, in honor of which, on the east bank of the Nile, the great temples of Luxor and Karnak were built.